ILLINOIS HISTORICAL SURVlY
04AUt m J04AMn
THE UNIVERSITY IN ITS COMMUNITY
COUNTRY CLUB RD
Office of Public Infonnatioii
Universify of Illinois af Urbana-Champaign
IlLINOIS K!STCRICAl SURV£]f
THE GOWN IN TOWN
The University in Its Community
The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has more
than 90 separate programs that deal with such basic social problems
as poverty/ racial discrimination, insufficient education, unequal
job opportunities and substandard housing.
These programs are a part of a concerted effort of the
imiversity to assist those who need it to develop themselves fully
in our competitive system.
As a result of administrative decisions aimed at expanding
educational and service opportunities, a number of colleges,
departments and agencies have developed significant programs.
Some of these programs, such as the academic Special Educational
Opportunities Program, were initiated at the campus or university
level. Others are developed at other academic levels--by colleges,
departments, schools, divisions or other units.
A class may sponsor a project, such as the Douglass Center
Branch Library developed by a graduate class in library science.
Other programs may be sponsored by university clubs and
organizations. Volunteer Illini Projects is run entirely by students.
Concerned people on the campus — from the administration, the
faculty, the staff and the student body — are becoming increasingly
involved in these and other service programs, both as individuals and
as institutional representatives.
They serve on local committees, join local organizations and
otherwise offer their individual expertise and abilities. Although
:he university may not be officially involved at the beginning, this
type of participation often leads to recognized programs or projects.
At least eight major goals have been identified with these
— To increase higher educational opportunities for the
educationally and economically disadvantaged.
— To overcome educational deficits and problems in the community,
working with preschool, primary, secondary and adult education,
— To provide university students with an opportunity to learn
directly from the disadvantaged.
— To develop programs which will be more effective in the
education of both the disadvantaged and the advantaged.
— To develop and provide services to aid more effectively the
— To augment cultural and social experiences while opening
avenues of communication.
— To develop leadership capabilities of black students and
members of the black community.
— To discover and respond to the roots of racial discrimination
on the campus and in the whole community.
These programs are all part of the university's mission. Each
serves at least one of the three inter-related functions of the
university: education, research and service.
Although the programs discussed in this pamphlet are placed
in one of the three categories for convenience, in reality there is
a great deal of overlap of programs and categories.
ATTACKING THE PROBLEM THROUGH EDUCATION
Many programs are designed to assist the self-development
of the educationally disadvantaged.
At the university level they seek to increase higher
education opportunities for the economically and educationally
disadvantaged. These and other programs provide university
students with the opportunity to learn directly from the disadvantaged,
either through field experience or class projects.
1. Increasing Higher Education Opportunities
Under the Special Educational Opportunities Program (SEOP)
the university recruits high school graduates who are financially
disadvantaged and who meet admission requirements although their
schooling did not prepare them for the level of academic competition
which presently exists at the U. of I.
SEOP students receive three types of assistance: academic,
supportive and financial. This assistance is available to all
U. of I. students who need it, whether or not they participate in
the program. The Special Educational Opportunities Program coordinates
these university services in developing a package best suited for
each student's individual needs.
Special sections of many basic freshman- sophomore courses
are offered to help overcome academic deficiencies of students who
were either "counseled out" as not "college material" or did not
have the subject offered in their high school. A second general
area of academic support is that of additional academic advising
through the college offices.
Four major types of supportive services are available to
the SEOP student: (1) assessment of his ability through academic
testing by the Student Counseling Service; (2) provisions for
the improvement of reading, writing and study skills through expanded
use of the reading clinic and the writing laboratory; (3) development
of a student tutoring system; and (4) development of special programs
designed to respond to the unique needs of SEOP students as they attempt
to acclimate to academic life of the Urbana-Champaign campus.
Four general types of financial aid are available for SEOP
and other needy students. The Educational Opportunity Grant and
Illinois State Scholarships provide non-repayable grants and
scholarships. Repayable long-term loans are available through
the National Defense Education Act/ the Illinois Guaranteed Loan
Program, and similar programs. Financial aid is also provided from
the university's own resources, through the Martin Luther King, Jr.
Memorial Fund, the University of Illinois Foundation and the Students
for Equal Access to Learning program. The fourth type is student
The number of new students that can be admitted each year
has been limited by the number of qualified applicants and the
availability of federal and state aid. A total of 601 students
enrolled during the 1968-69 year, with an additional 276 in 1969-70.
Approximately 300-325 more will be admitted through the program in
The College of Education and the College of Commerce and
Business Administration have developed programs in conjunction with
the Special Educational Opportunities Program.
This summer 17 minority students participated in the
pre-college summer education program in the College of Commerce and
Business Administration. The program for the new SEOP students
was co-sponsored by 17 Illinois business corporations.
The ten-week simimer program includes nine weeks of pre-college
education and training on this campus and one week of more detailed
acquaintance with the particular firm sponsoring each student.
The College of Education developed the Alternate Teacher
Education Program to increase the opportunity for students interested
in the field and to develop an undergraduate teacher training program
for teachers of the disadvantaged.
Under the Alternate Teacher Education Program, assignments
and emphasis are coordinated in the core courses of education, history
and philosophy of education, and rhetoric. In addition to the regular
class schedule, each student works in a public school for four hours
per week. Traditionally, school experience was reserved for the last
semester of teacher training programs. The early experience under
this new program provides a context for educational theory and gives
the students an earlier orientation from the viewpoint of the school.
Groundwork for the Special Educational Opportunities Program
was laid by a summer experimental program of the College of Liberal
Arts and Sciences for 20 youths in the summer of 1965. Lessons
learned through this program expedited the development of SEOP plans.
SEOP is not the only program on campus aimed at increasing
educational opportunity. Special financial aid is made available
to students in law and library science.
U. of I. Trustee W. Clement Stone recently announced a
program which will make one and a half million dollars available for
disadvantaged students to pursue the study of law on this campus.
The program will provide financial assistance for three classes of
25 new students each year for three years, beginning this fall.
Under the program, designated the Illinois Equal Opportunity
Law Fellowship Program, the W. Clement & Jesse V. Stone Foundation
will provide up to $500,000, and nine participating banks — including
five Champaign banks — will provide approximately $1 million in
federally guaranteed student loans to help them with living expenses
while living in school.
Twelve graduate students are enrolled in the first year of
the Scholarship Program in Library Science for Members of Minority
Groups. The program provides tax-free stipends of $2,000 for the
academic year, $500 for the first summer, plus tuition and fee waivers
for up to two years plus one summer. Approximately 12 per year will
be admitted under this program, depending on the availability of funds.
2. Field Experience in Working With the Disadvantaged
The Jane Addams Graduate School of Social Work maintains a
Field Learning Center next door to the Champaign County Family Service
Office. Here the graduate students in social work become involved in
marital and family counseling, homemaker services and family life
education. They work closely with area nursing homes, hospitals, the
county rehabilitation center and the Urban League.
In addition to the experience the students receive, the
center also brings the latest theory from the university setting
to the agency in the field for testing and adoption.
Students in the College of Law receive academic credit
for their participation in the Public Defender, State's Attorney
and Legal Aid programs. Under all three programs the second- and
third-year law students work eight to ten hours per week in the
local offices under the direct supervision of agency attorneys.
They aid the attorneys by interviewing clients, researching
questions of law, preparing motions and briefs, and sometimes
actually trying cases.
During the summer several law students also participated
in community involvement programs in Urbana-Champaign and in
Chicago. In this community they worked for the local legal service
agency and various family service agencies. Those who qualified
were paid through the Federal Work-Study Program. In Chicago they
worked as summer VISTA lawyers for Community Legal Counsel of Chicago,
an organization which provides legal assistance and representation
to local community action organizations in that city.
Law students enrolled in the regularly offered courses in
Family Law and Psychiatry also receive some clinical experience.
These courses place a limited number of students in agencies which
deal with problems related to the academic problems being studied.
Approximately 50 U. of I students participated in the
Slammer recreation programs of the Champaign and Urbana park
districts. Most of them worked as playground leaders and
recreation directors, although some helped out in maintenance work
or as lifeguards. A few worked in Urbana 's day camp program.
All students received pay for this work. In addition, some
received academic credit for field work.
Students in architecture, urban planning, landscape
architecture, interior design and engineering gain field experience
through the Community Advocacy Depot (CAD) . The depot was
organized by the local poor community to provide the necessary
professional and technical expertise required in the solution of
their problems, especially housing and social problems. Control
of CAD remains with the poor black and poor white communities.
The depot works through the university departments in obtaining
the help it needs for its projects. Whether or not the students receive
academic credit for their work with the depot is detearmined by their
college or department.
Closely related to CAD is the Afro-American Consolidated
Contractors organization. U. of I. students, especially those in
architecture and engineering, help this group of new black businessmen
in learning the technicalities of preparing bid documents, making
As a part of their studies, university home economics students
in child development work with the children at the Community Day Care
Center as well as thost: in the nursery schools at the Child Development
Although the program requirements generally preclude
disadvantaged youth from participating in the Child Development
Laboratory nursery schools, the laboratory does provide community
service through workshops, tours and short courses.
Nursery schools for the disadvantaged were held at the
Child Development Laboratory the spring before the Head Start
Program was initiated in this community. The director of the
laboratory has been a consultant to the national Head Start Program
in Washington, D. C, since the program began. She is also on
the board of the Community Day Care Center.
Graduate students in the Leadership Training Program for
Administrators of Preschool Programs for the Disadvantaged receive
training and field experience through several projects of the
Special Education Department at the Col. Wolfe School.
Many students receive no academic credit for their volunteer
work. Yet they receive valuable experience through working with
Volunteer Illini Projects (VIP), the PAL program of the University
YMCA and other organizations in the university community.
Through VIP students gain experience as tutors, as teachers'
aides recreation leaders, team teachers and discussion leaders, and
social workers. They work with youth; with the emotionally disturbed
and retarded, both young and old; with adults studying at the
Opportunities Industrial Center, and with the aged in the nursing homes.
A variety of programs are coordinated through the Office
of Student Programs and Services, which will provide staff support
next year for Campus Volunteer Services. Many projects under
SPAS are service- or culturally-oriented, aimed at opening
communications with the black community.
University faculty members participate as individuals in
many community organizations and projects. Although this may not
be part of their official duties as members of the faculty, this
participation often has a direct impact on their teaching and research
and may grow into field experience for their students or even into
a class project.
3. Class Projects
A graduate class of nine library students wanted to do
something practical about library service to the disadvantaged.
Because of their project, a community library will open some time
this fall at the Douglass Community Center.
Original plans called for a small library of paperbacks/
financed with the $3,000 available to the class through the library
school. But local response and enthusiasm resulted in a successful
request for $62,000 in federal funds for the first two years' operation,
after which financial responsibility will be assumed by the Champaign
and Urbana Public Libraries. The library will be staffed by community
people and headed by a professional director selected by the community.
The community has also benefited from industrial design
class projects. Student-designed and mass-produced toys were
distributed to local children through VISTA last year. For
its spring project the class tackled the problem of developing
uses for disposable materials, which could be beneficial to
anyone on a tight budget.
Under a new course in the College of Law students may
participate in the actual trial of cases before the Federal
District Court in Danville. Students will assist the professor
in the litigation of cases in which he is presently engaged. Neither
the professor nor the students will receive any remuneration for
their participation in the cases used in the course.
Adult and Continuing Education
Several programs are aimed at helping people upgrade or
acquire skills or knowledge so that they can improve their lives
in this community.
These programs center around developing and improving
skills and knowledge in fours areas: nutrition, child care, local
enterprise and employment. The fourth area will be discussed later
in the pamphlet,
Nutrition programs seek to improve the family diet by better
utilizing the resources available. During the past year and a half
the U. of I. has made a concentrated statewide effort in this area
with the Expanded Nutrition Program, sponsored by the Cooperative
Extension Service in the College of Agriculture.
Studies showed that the 307 Urbana-Champaign families
enrolled in the program improved their original family diets by
15 per cent by the end of the first year.
Utilizing community leaders as program assistants, the
program shows the poor better and more economical ways of buying
food, planning meals and preparing the food. Lessons taught by
the program assistants in the weekly classes also include the
role that various foods play in the diet, money management and
other features of interest and need to the homemakers.
Kitchen eguipnent for the classes at the Francis Nelson
Health Center, the Wilbur Heights Community Center and the Extension
Office was furnished by the County Extension Homemakers Association.
A second nutrition project. Nutrition for Mother and Baby,
is sponsored by Home Economics Education. Weekly classes are
held for pregnant women and community leaders interested in working
with these new mothers. Transportation and lunch are included as
part of the class.
A third nutrition project, also sponsored by the Champaign
County Cooperative Extension Service and the College of Agriculture,
is a garden project helping the poor grow some of their own food.
Working with the Black Coalition, the extension staff
helped the new gardeners borrow the necessary farm equipment and
plant the garden. The County Agricultural Extension Council provided
money for seeds, plants and fertilizer.
After the harvest the program assistants plan to teach
the people canning and preserving methods so that they might
preserve the produce not used as fresh vegetables.
2. Child Care
Mothers in low income families often have limited education
and limited awareness of the problems associated with preparing
children for successful participation in school.
To help these mothers develop new knowledge and skills
the Department of Special Education has organized a program in
Teaching Mothers to Teach Their Infants. First initiated in the
fall of 1967, the program works with mothers with low incomes who
have infants between the ages of 12-23 months.
According to the program each mother (1) participates in
weekly group meetings where she learns how to teach her child at
home, (2) teaches her infant for 15 minutes to an hour a day, and
(3) works with a home visitor who visits her at home once a week
and helps her with any individual problems that she has had with
Four mothers who participated felt the program was so
important that they set up sub-programs in the housing areas.
According to observations the children developed greater increases
in attention span and eagerness for learning through the program.
A second program sponsored by the department at the Col. Wolfe
School is its Training Program for Mothers of Three-Year-Old
Disadvantaged Children, which emphasizes both mother-child education
and mother-centered activities.
Under this program the mothers attend weekly meetings to
obtain materials and information on how to be more effective
teachers of their children at home. These are followed by-
weekly home visits where she can be observed teaching her child
and receive additional help.
Mother-centered activities come under the headings of
occupational enhancement and participation in the life of the
3. Local Enterprise
Two projects in Urbana-Champaign are aimed at helping the
disadvantaged develop their own businesses. Both local projects
are sponsored by the black community, with the university furnishing
professional guidance and assistance when requested.
Faculty members of the College of Commerce and Business
Administration work with representatives of the Progress Association
for Economic Development (PAED) in its formation as a profit
corporation and in its proposed Entrepreneurial Development Training
Center (EDTC) .
The college will provide tutorial sessions for PAED officials
taking the Illinois security dealers examination and also provide
lectures and assistance as requested by the EDTC.
Through its faculty and students the university has helped
the Community Advocacy Depot and the Afro-American Consolidated
Contractors organization by providing technical and professional
assistance as requested. This includes helping these organizations
obtain funding for their projects.
Preschool, Primary and Secondairy Education
Increasing opportunities for higher education requires the
prevention or reversal of academic deficiencies. Some programs
work toward preventing these deficiencies or seek to overcome them
before a youngster reaches the college level.
As an institution which is preparing students as future
teachers, principals and administrators, the university has a
vital interest and a natural vehicle in the prevention and solution
of these educational problems.
The university operates two laboratory schools: the
Washington Laboratory School in Champaign and University High School
The Washington Laboratory School is a cooperative venture
with the Champaign Unit 4 School District which was launched to
provide high quality programs in a racially and socio-economically
integrated environment and, at the same time, to develop and test
improved instructional materials and techniques.
University High School is used to develop and test new
instructional materials and techniques at the high school level.
Programs developed at the two laboratory schools may be
adopted by community schools to improve their instruction.
There are two types of programs for the economically and
educationally disadvantaged youth: tutoring or other special
educational programs and youth-oriented cultural and social activities.
1. Tutoring and Special Education
Individual tutoring is available through two groups:
Volunteer Illini Projects and the summer tutorial project of the
During the school year the tutors often work in the local
schools, taking the children out of homerooms, study halls and
classes. They may also work with the youths in their homes after
school in the evenings.
This tutoring is available in whatever areas the students
need; major deficiencies are in reading and arithmetic.
In order to better represent the population of the community,
University High School accepted a class of students who were
slightly below the average achievement level of its sub-freshman
class. This special class included both blacks and whites with
the same entrance patterns.
This group of 16, although they would rank above average
in their home schools, still require special help in mathematics
and English. The university's Reading Clinic is helping those who
need it. This help will continue at least through the freshman year.
The program just completed its first year, but this group
appears to be developing into superior students through the special
courses. They are holding their own with other University High
students in social studies and science classes.
In the future some of the methods developed here may be
applied in the local grade and high schools.
The Champaign County Expanded Nutrition Program, mentioned
earlier for adults, was recently expanded to teaching nutrition to
youth. Each program assistant is responsible for organizing groups
of children between the ages of 6 and 19 into nutrition clubs.
The clubs are led by adult volunteers who are given special training
in nutrition by the program assistants. There are four clubs
currently under way with the youngsters being taught nutrition,
leadership and citizenship.
Four programs at the Col. Wolfe School, in addition to the
two mentioned earlier, are aimed at special education of
Through a summer project, titled The Training of Teenagers
to Tutor Their Young, Disadvantaged Siblings, young teenagers, aged
11-14, teach their younger brothers and sisters, from 2-4 years old.
The older youths attend weekly meetings in groups of three to four
and are observed weekly working with their young brothers and
sisters in the home.
In addition to the educational benefits provided for the
younger children, this program is also valuable to the teenagers
in showing them how to accept responsibilities and in providing them
with positive contacts in a working relationship with members of the
This fall Col. Wolfe is operating a Cooperative Dual
Kindergarten with the Champaign Unit 4 Schools. The four classes
for five-year-old disadvantaged children provide experience for
trainees in the Leadership Training Program for Administrators of
Preschool Programs for the Disadvantaged as well as provide the
children with the opportunity to improve their preparation for school.
A Model Program for the Early Education of Handicapped
Children from all socio-economic levels began operations at the
Col. Wolfe School this fall. The children, ages 3-5, have
primary handicapping conditions (hard of hearing, deaf, speech
impaired, visually handicapped, seriously emotionally disturbed,
crippled, or other health impairments) and function in the mentally
This project is a joint effort of the U. of I. Department of
Special Education, the Urbana and Champaign public schools and the
State of Illinois Department of Public Instruction.
The fourth Col. Wolfe program, the Hoopeston Model Program
for the Early Education of Migrant Children, financed by the
Illinois Migrant Council, involved 90 children ranging from infancy
through 5 years old.
A total of 65 high school students participated in this
summer's Upward Bound program. Upward Bound is a pre-college
program for low income students, designed for high school students
who have the ability to be successful college students but are now
receiving average or low grades in high school or otherwise are
not expected to have an opportunity to go to college in the future.
The program lasts for three summers and two school terms.
Summers are spent on the U. of I. campus, where all Upward Bound
students attend classes in English, mathematics and speech. Elective
courses in psychology, history, typing, sewing, and arts and crafts
are also available.
During his junior and senior years in high school the
Upwa'rd Bound student attends Saturday morning classes on the
U. of I. campus.
There is no cost to the students, who receive $7.50
per week spending money during the summer sessions on campus and
$15 per month during the school year/ as long as they remain
active in the program.
The Junior Engineering Technical Society of the College
of Engineering sponsors a two-week summer program in engineering
for youth from the inner city. Although the program was set up
primarily for Chicago and East St. Louis youth, it is open to
interested youths from the community.
Each summer for the past three years the School of Chemical
Sciences in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences has
participated in the Catalyst program of the American Chemical
Society. The program brings promising high school students from
disadvantaged families into university chemistry laboratories
where they work for two months with professional scientists. The
program, partially financed through a grant from the ACS, is
designed to motivate disadvantaged young people and give them
the incentive to continue their education.
Last summer two seniors from Centennial High School
participated in the program. One was financed by the national
society and one by the local chapter.
Four Urbana-Champaign high school boys worked with electricians
through the Sxommer Youth Program in the Trades, sponsored by the
local electrician's union and the university. Under the program
two youths worked with electricians in the university's operations
and maintenance division and two with local contractors.
The program gives the youths a summer job, knowledge about
opportunities in the construction trades and motivation to complete
high school. The high school diploma is required for entrance to
many apprentice programs.
This program may be expanded into other trades in the future.
2. Activities Oriented to Youth
Several programs are aimed at the cultural and social
education of disadvantaged youth in Urbana-Champaign.
The Division of University Extension held art and music
classes at community centers and local schools through the
Northside Project, which was terminated last spring because of
the lack of funds.
During its one and a half years Northside Project sponsored
art classes at the Douglass Center and the Martin Luther King and
Gregory Schools and guitar classes at the two schools.
A group of 80 4-H junior leaders, including four from
Champaign County, this summer led a day camp for 80 disadvantaged
youth — 40 from Urbana-Champaign and 40 from Decatur. The day at
the 4-H camp in Monticello was filled with nutrition-education
games, group singing, sports, swimming, boating, hiking and concluded
with a cookout near the lake.
This day camp is an indication of the new direction of 4-H.
Many 4-H clubs are developing urban-oriented programs. A group
of U. of I. students have organized and are leading two clubs in
the Wilbur Heights area.
Sesame Street, a popular children's program aimed at the
disadvantaged preschooler, is televised on WILL-TV twice daily
during the school year.
Many projects of VIP are aimed at helping the youth's
cultural and social education. These include recreation projects
at Beardsley School, Crystal Lake Park, Cunningham Home, Martin
Luther King School, Marquette School and the Adler Zone Center;
working with Girl Scouts and the Wilbur Heights 4-H clubs;
Project Friendship where the student volunteers work with problem
children on a one-to-one basis; and a bowling program for
trainable mentally retarded children 12 years and older.
ATTACKING THE PROBLEM THROUGH RESEARCH
Programs which are successful in one city sometimes fail
in another. Thus all programs for the disadvantaged may be
regarded as experimental.
Whether or not they are formal research projects, such
programs affect the university's research. Problems are defined,
causes projected and analyzed, and solutions proposed. The best
of these solutions are initiated in the community or on the campus.
The results of these "field trials" are evaluated.
These programs seek to solve some part of the basic social
problems through answering one or more of three basic questions:
— Which educational methods are most successful, for
both advantaged and disadvantaged, in the school and in the
— How can the university best aid the community?
— What should be the university's role in these programs?
Should it be a leader, a teacher, a partner, a consultant, a bank,
or just a meeting place?
No program is aimed specifically at answering the third
question. The results of all programs will help provide its answer.
1. Developing Educational Methods
The Engelmann-Becker program, which is used in the federal
government's Follow Through program for underprivileged children,
was developed through a research project at this University of
The government- sponsored Follow Through picks up where
Head Start ends, continuing through third grade the special
individualized attention received in Head Start.
More than 5,000 children in classrooms ranging from a
Sioux Indian reservation in South Dakota to the Ocean-Hill-Brownsville
district of New York are learning reading, writing, arithmetic and
science with the help of the Engelmann-Becker program.
Research in the College of Education is coordinated through
the Bureau of Educational Research, the Center for Instructional
Research and Curriculum Evaluation, the Curriculum Laboratory and
University High School, and the Institute for Research on
Lab schools such as University High School and the
Washington Laboratory School are utilized to develop and test
improved instructional materials and techniques. Many of these
methods are quite successful in working with under-achievers and
The research and educational programs at the Col. Wolfe
School have received national acclaim for their work in providing
preschool education for the economically disadvantaged.
The National Laboratory on Early Childhood Education is
located in Urbana-Champaign.
Another major educational research facility on campus is
the Children's Research Center, a part of the Graduate College.
Research projects in the Speech and Hearing Clinic and the Psychological
Clinic, both in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, may also
benefit the disadvantaged.
Local nutrition classes for mother and baby are part of
a home economics education research project. This project has
three research goals: to develop new ways to teach nutrition,
to develop adult education for the disadvantaged and to develop
nutrition materials that they can read.
The Cooperative Extension Service was the most successful
in working with the farmer and the rural population. Will this
pattern be as successful in the city? The Expanded Nutrition
Program, developed by the service, is using the same technique
of community leadership and demonstrations.
At the university level the Special Educational Opportunities
Program can be considered experimental in both teaching methods
and supportive services. Some of the techniques developed for
the special sections have been adopted in other classrooms.
Research in developing instructional materials for the
college classroom is coordinated by the campus Office of Instructional
Resources. The office aids faculty members in developing, using
and evaluating instructional procedures, including technological
innovations such as television, programmed instruction, films and
other audio-visual techniques.
Through these and other programs the university seeks to
discover and develop better educational techniques at all levels
of education, from infancy to adulthood.
Both pure and applied research in a large number of areas
on campus have educational benefits that cut across social, economic
and racial lines.
Examples include research into reading ability and levels,
teaching methods, improving communications, mathematical concepts,
child care and nutrition.
Research currently under way also deals with early
childhood education, the effectiveness of preschool education,
improving reading skills, improving writing skills, methods of
adult education and social behavior.
There are also a number of on-going research programs in
learning problems, developmental problems and human relations in
the departments of psychology, educational psychology, anthropology
and other departments.
2 . Discovering Ways to Aid the Community
The College of Commerce and Business Administration plans
to hold a Conference on Investment in People late in the fall.
The conference will be centered on ways in which business, government
and educational institutions might cooperate to enhance educational
and employment opportunities of the disadvantaged. Participants
are to include approximately 50 businessmen and 50 from the various
branches of government at the state and national levels and
This is the only program that directly addresses itself to
this question. But each program aimed at helping the disadvantaged
attacks the problem in the way its sponsors feel will be most
successful. Thus a comparison of all programs and their achievements
might come up with the most promising form of aid which the
university could provide the disadvantaged community.
ATTACKING THE PROBLEM THROUGH SERVICE
Serving the Community
Service to the Urbana-Champaign black community is
centered around three basic goals:
— Providing cultural opportunities.
— Developing community leadership,
— Opening avenues of communication.
Many cultural and social events on the campus are open
to the community. Special efforts are often made to invite
members of the black community to events that are of particular
interest to them.
The role of the local resident in many events is changing
from that of a member of the audience to that of active participant.
Members of the Urbana-Champaign community add their voices to the
Black Chorus / their beat to the Afro-American Percussion Group/
their steps to the Afro-American Dance Group.
Many of these events are coordinated through the university's
Office of Student Programs and Services (SPAS) and the Afro-American
Commission. The Afro-American Commission sponsors three types of
programs: the Afro-American Academic Program, which is responsible
for Afro-American perspective and emphasis in the academic activities
conducted on the campus; the Afro-American Cultural Program; and the
Afro-American Public Service Program, which is concerned with
SPAS has initiated a series of community teenage dances,
utilizing community facilities and resources as well as those on the
campus. Other events under the "action now" program during
the second semester last spring were the "Soul Bowl" basketball
tournament, a skate party at the Douglass Center, a cabaret-dance-variety
show, a "Soul Dinner", a "Soul Picnic" and a work day in the
community to assist senior citizens in spading and planting their
The first campus Black Mothers Day celebration in May,
held in conjunction with campus Mothers Day activities, was a joint
university-community venture. All but one of the local black
churches joined the Black Chorus for the evening gospel sing,
presented to a capacity audience in the Great Hall of the Krannert
Center for the Performing Arts. Visiting parents were then
invited to Sunday morning services in the local black churches.
University-community relations include all aspects of the
campus and the community, including the relationship of black
university students to the local blacks. Last year the three
black fraternities on campus opened all house social events to
all from the black community.
SPAS and the Afro-American Commission cooperate in sponsoring
many cultural events in the community. Some of these joint
ventures include the Uhuru performers, which combine African and
American music and dance, and a cultural series of dance and
entertainment. Many events are presented at community centers and
in local parks as well as on the university campus.
When the Afro-American Commission built a stage for
these performances, it located the stage in King Park so that
it can be used for community events as well.
Several events at the Afro-American Cultural Center, an
agency of the Afro-American Commission, are also open to the
community. The center's programs and workshops for writers,
dancers and musicians are not restricted to students. Its
cultural programs, often presented by visiting speakers and
artists, are also open to the community.
Black Awareness, a program involving a series of
lectures by visiting authorities, open to the public and
extensively advertised, as well as a course for regular enrolled
students, has been sponsored by the Colleges of Liberal Arts and
Sciences and Fine and Applied Arts. It will be repeated in
Through these projects and assistance to community
organizations such as the Community Advocacy Depot and the
Progress Association for Economic Development, the university hopes
to develop leadership in the community.
Many of these people are already leaders in the black
community. Much of the effort is in helping them obtain the skills
and knowledge required to become leaders of the entire community,
so that their businesses can be comparable to similar white
businesses. In addition, black youth need the opportunity to
learn how to become leaders. The students leaders in integrated
high schools are usually white, and black students often do not have
the opportunity to develop their leadership skills.
This fall SPAS is working more with adults from the
north end, helping them become familiar with the campus and
what it has to offer for their families and community.
Assisting the community "help itself" also comes through
university assistance to local organizations in preparing and
filing funding proposals and in finding financial aid and other
Every human relations program has an affect on communication
between the university and the poor community, between black and
white, whether or not opening avenues of communications is a
primary goal of that program.
Increasing Black Opportunities
1. Educational Opportunity
Programs aimed at increasing educational opportunity for
university students, for local children from infancy through
high school and for adults in the community are discussed in the
education section of this pamphlet.
All approved housing for undergraduates and all housing
listed by the university must be open to individuals of all races.
Each landlord must sign a pledge before his facilities are approved
This requirement covers the entire spectrum of campus
housing, from university and private residence halls to fraternities
and sororities, independent houses and rooming houses.
University philosophy on housing discrimination is that
the offense is against the university, not the complainant. The
complainant is just a witness of the offense.
To follow up charges of discrimination the university
established the Housing Review Committee in 1964. During the
1969-70 academic year the committee investigated eight complaints
of discrimination. Of these, charges were dismissed without hearings
on three complaints, the landlord was found guilty as charged in
three cases and sanctions were recommended against a fraternity
found to have discriminated. A hearing has not been held on the
Sanctions against those found to have discriminated
include loss of university recognition as approved housing and
loss of all privileges to list with the university any housing
associated with the landlord either as owner or manager. In addition,
the board recommends that complainants report the discrimination
to the local housing review board.
At the request of the black community, the university hired
an outside firra to do a survey of the university's impact on housing
in Urbana-Champaign, especially on low-income housing.
This report, which showed the university to have a major
effect, has been reviewed by the Technical Advisory Task Force of
the Ad Hoc Policy Committee on Community Housing Development.
The committee works with the Concerned Citizens Committee
and other local interest groups and agencies in providing technical
assistance in community housing development efforts.
3 . Employment
Equal employment opportunity is a major concern of the
university. President David D. Henry this summer announced
creation of a University Council on Equal Opportunity to "provide
a new level of attention and involvement, a systematic means of
communication and a continuing mechanism for planning, coordination
and evaluation." This council will be concerned with equal
opportunity in all phases of the university.
There are three areas of work in the university's equal
employment opportunity efforts on this campus.
— To open jobs to qualified blacks and members of other
— To recruit persons who are qualified for employment on
the campus but who traditionally have been hesitant to apply.
— To help educationally disadvantaged persons become qualified
for university employment.
The Affirmative Action program for nonacademic employment,
now directly responsible to the Chancellor's Office, increases the
number of jobs open to blacks and members of other minority races
through the institution of trainee programs, the elimination of
administrative barriers, and intense cooperation with employing units
on campus .
Each unit has an affirmative action officer to develop
and execute programs for his unit, working through the Affirmative
Action for Equal Opportunity Office.
When a vacancy occurs, the employing unit contacts the
Personnel ServicesOf fice , which sends over the top three candidates
on the list. Positions on the list are determined by competitive
examinations, which have been designed to be free of any racial bias.
The affirmative action officer seeks to insure the employing units
do not discriminate when selecting from qualified applicants.
After a black is employed, the affirmative action officer in
the unit works to resolve any problems which may arise through
This fall greater efforts will be made to increase the number
of minority workers on campus construction projects. New contracts
will have stricter requirements on equal employment opportunity,
including a clause requiring contractors to document good faith
efforts to employ blacks.
The university is also negotiating with local unions to let
it gain some control over the selection of apprentices to be employed
by the operations and maintenance division on the campus.
One of the main difficulties in increasing the number of
minority employees is that traditionally few of those who are
qualified apply. In addition to opening up job opportunities,
the university actively recruits members of minority groups for these
positions. Black employees of the university and those associated
with the Affirmative Action program work with community leaders and
organizations in the identification and recruitment of qualified
This recruitment even extends to the high schools. One
of the duties of the Office of Equal Employment Opportunity Related
to Construction, being established this fall/ vill be to visit
local schools to encourage students to get their diplomas and to
recruit them for the construction trades.
The university maintains a list of blacks wanting to work
in the construction trades.
For several years the university has been working with
local trades unions and the black community in developing
pre-apprentice training programs.
As of June 8, 44 learner, apprentice and trainee programs
in many areas of employment were approved for this campus. Nine
more were pending approval, and a tenth has been proposed. All
are aimed at increasing employment opportunity by helping blacks
The list includes 32 learner programs, of which five are
pending; nine apprentice programs, of which four have been
tentatively approved, four are pending and one is to be submitted;
and 13 trainee programs, all approved.
Largest and best-known is the Clerical Learner Program,
which has graduated 50 since it was started in December 1968. The
program is aimed at training unskilled women to the point where
they can pass the civil service examination for the Clerk-Typist I
Under the program the learners attend classes for half days
and work in the department offices the other half. Their salaries
are paid by the department.
In the classes the learners receive instruction in power
typing, office techniques and personal grooming. The program will
be expanded this fall to include transcribing and stenography.
A curriculum for the Clerk-Typist II position, next on the scale,
is currently being developed.
This program has been well accepted by the local community.
There were 60 names on the waiting list at the end of the summer.
FROM GOWN TO TOWN
Degrees of Involvement
There are three levels of human relations programs,
according to type and amount of involvement.
The first level is the infrequent or one-time program,
such as a Christmas party for a group of children. Other
examples are collecting food, clothing, toys, money, etc.,
for distribution at Thanksgiving or Christmas. A favorite
project, especially for organized houses, is to take a group
or class to the circus or some other event on campus. Because
this is a one-time or infrequent venture with a group sponsoring
activities or doing something for another group, there is
little individual contact.
At the second level continuing programs are developed
on campus or elsewhere and then brought into the community.
Local involvement may be limited to attending and participating
in the meetings or programs. If there is little community
participation in the planning and control of the program, it
may not be accepted very well in the community. However,
these programs can be successful, especially if local participation
is encouraged and increased once the programs are under way.
The third type is a cooperative effort, often with
the black community providing the leadership and the planning
and the university taking the role of professional consultant.
The university offers its resources to aid in developing
programs at the request of the community.
This might include aid in preparing bid documents, in
helping with engineering studies, in decorating or landscaping
new housing developments, or in assisting local organizations
in preparing applications for funding from the federal government
or private foundations.
To Go To Town
The opportunity is available for anyone at the University
of Illinois who desires to contribute to programs for the
Students can work individually through Volunteer Illini
Projects, the Office of Student Programs and Services, campus
organizations or churches. If their service is related to their
field of study they can contact an interested professor or their
department about the possibility of gaining field experience for
credit or initiating a class project.
Faculty and employees also can volunteer their services
through these and other organizations, such as service groups,
churches, the United Fund, etc.
Working to solve the basic social problems of poverty, racial
discrimination, insufficient education, unequal job opportunities
and substandard housing is a major concern of the entire university.
Everyone on the campus—administrator, professor, student or employee-
can participate according to his special interests, desires and